This document is fact sheet abe370, one of a series of the agricultural and biological engineering department, florida cooperative extension service, institute of food and agricultural sciences, university of florida. Thermal methods for investigating groundwater recharge. Artificial recharge techniques normally address to following issues. Direct methods can be divided into surface recharge techniques and. For evaluation of groundwater recharge rate, several conventional methods such as. For example in arid and semiarid areas, where deep drainage fluxes are low and water tables are deep, interpreting groundwater hydrographs and water table rises may be misleading for estimating rates of groundwater recharge. Under specific conditions artificial recharge by use of either waterspreading basins or injection wells is a proved. Recharge commonly is estimated at the watershed scale using simple waterbudget methods or numerical groundwater.
Pdf estimation of groundwater recharge by groundwater. Estimation of groundwater recharge pharmaceutical research. After pretreatment, the water is ready for recharge, either through surface spreading and infiltration through the unsaturated zone or by direct injection into ground water. Assessment of artificial groundwater recharge using greenhouses. Estimating monetized benefits of groundwater recharge from. Groundwater recharge potential for sustainable water use. Rainfall is the principal means for replenishment of moisture in the soil water system and recharge to ground water.
Recharge is a major component of the groundwater system and has important implications for shallow groundwater quality. This article throws light upon the top nine methods of groundwater recharge. The groundwater l evels fluctuation is most applied methods for calculat ing recharge values. Recharge by infiltration takes advantage of the natural treatment processes, such as biodegradation of organic chemicals. Stated simply, artificial recharge is a process by which excess surface water is directed into the groundeither by spreading on the surface, by using recharge. Groundwater flow systems the route which groundwater takes to a discharge point is known as a flow path. Recharge is the primary method through which water enters an aquifer.
Groundwater recharge can also be defined generally as addition of water from the overlying unsaturated zone or surface water body. Aquifer recharge john r nimmo 1, richard w healy2 and david a stonestrom 1united states geological survey, menlo park, ca, us 2united states geological survey, denver, co, us aquifer recharge is important both for hydrologic understanding and for effective water resource management. Gradients of major feeder ditches should be sufficient to carry suspended material through the system since deposition of fine. This book provides a critical evaluation of the theory and assumptions that underlie methods for estimating rates of groundwater recharge. Stonestrom 2007 conceptual model of coupled transport of heat and water during focused recharge as occurs beneath channels and along mountain fronts and diffuse recharge as occurs beneath interfluvial areas of basin floors. Rates of groundwater recharge are greatest when rainfall inputs to the soil exceed evapotranspiration losses.
Because it is almost impossible to measure directly, recharge is usually estimated by indirect means. Pdf estimates of groundwater recharge constitute fundamental input for most approaches used to evaluate and manage groundwater. Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater. Methods for estimating groundwater recharge in humid regions. Ground water recharge is the process of water infiltrating from surface and percolating to water table. Thermal methods for investigating groundwater recharge by kyle w. Whereas these methods provide an average recharge estimate for an area, recharge can vary. Vadosezone techniques, including physical and chemical methods allison et a. Encyclopedia of life support systems eolss available or exploitable groundwater resources are less than the total of potential resources because their extraction is subject to socioeconomic restrictions as well as. Thus it is probable that direct recharge is reduced in urban areas.
Methods for estimating groundwater recharge in humid. Groundwater recharge encyclopedia of life support systems. Artificial recharge is a method to balance and recover groundwater resources through floodwater spreading sys tems and injection wells e. This is likely due to the abundance of available groundwaterlevel data and the simplicity of. Most of these methods show that there are generally higher rates of recharge in urban settings than in natural settings. Groundwater recharge from agricultural areas in the flatwoods region of south florida1 sanjay shukla and fouad h. What are the results from other methods to determine groundwater recharge. Pdf estimates of groundwater recharge constitute fundamental input for most approaches used to evaluate and manage groundwater resources. For evaluation of groundwater recharge rate, several conventional.
Darcian estimates based on pedotransfer functions are referred to in this paper as r. Guide on artificial recharge central ground water board. Additional assumptions and sources of uncertainty are presented in section 4. The major assumptions are listed below, separated by monetized unit value and recharge volume methods. This study was one of several within the usgs groundwater resources program designed to provide an improved understanding of methods for estimating recharge in the eastern united states.
Some recharge rates represent point estimates, whereas others reflect lumped values for large areas. Rushton 1997 also distinguishes actual recharge, estimated from groundwater studies, and which reaches the water table, frompoten. Waterbudget methods are those that are based, in one form or another, on a waterbudget equation. Chapter 6 groundwater recharge this chapter presents the standards, data, and procedures necessary to meet the groundwater recharge requirements of the njdep stormwater management rules at n.
Information on different methods is contained in references such as simmers 1988, 1997, sharma 1989, lerner et al. Because recharge is a difficult parameter to quantify, it is. The amount of percolation varies from place to place and it. Methods of recharge estimation recharge was estimated by the darcian method and two chloridetracer methods. Methods of artificial recharge artificial recharge methods can be classified into two broad groups i direct methods, and ii indirect methods. Artificial groundwater recharge through roadside and open space rain water harvesting structures in coimbatore city india is a land where rivers form the veins of the country and is blessed with. Artificial recharge to ground water is a process by which the ground water reservoir is augmented at a rate exceeding that obtaining under natural conditions or replenishment. The accuracy of the indirect estimates is usually difficult to determine. This process usually occurs in the vadose zone below plant roots and, is often expressed as a flux to the water table surface. Encyclopedia of life support systems eolss the increasing demand for water in many regions around the world has led to the. Space and time scales represented by the recharge rates will be important for using the data in numerical modeling. Quantification of groundwater recharge in urban environments. Methods such as mixing ratios or groundwater modeling can be used to better estimate the relative importance of different sources of recharge and may prove to be a good tool for total recharge evaluation.
Mar 16, 2016 artificial recharge to ground water is a process by which the ground water reservoir is augmented at a rate exceeding that obtaining under natural conditions or replenishment. Comparison of groundwater recharge estimation methods for the semiarid nyamandhlovu area, zimbabwe article pdf available in hydrogeology journal 176. It is the result of water percolating through various layers of soil and rocks due to the atmospheric precipitation and snow. Curve number and groundwater recharge credits for lid facilities in new jersey kaveh zomorodi, ph. Estimating regional groundwater recharge using a hydrological. In case of artificial recharge through water spreading methods, soil and land use conditions which control the rate of infiltration and downward percolation of the water applied on the surface of the soil assume special importance. A technology for sustainable water resource development 62 5. Jan, 2009 estimating groundwater recharge is a key component in determining the sustainable yield of groundwater resources in arid and semiarid areas such as southern california. Over 3 million acrefeet of the rivers flow has been captured to recharge the orange county ground water basin. Estimating groundwater recharge understanding groundwater recharge is essential for the successful management of water resources and modeling.
Recharge has been defined as the process of addition of water to the saturated zone. Although several methods have been used to estimate the groundwater discharge and recharge from stream. Any manmade scheme or facility that adds water to an aquifer may be considered to be an artificial recharge system. Understanding the components of a water budget is a prerequisite for assessing the sustainability of an aquifer system. Estimates of groundwater recharge constitute fundamental input for most approaches used to evaluate and manage groundwater resources. It should be noted in passing that permeable pavements are sometimes used to reduce runoff, and these will increase. The estimation of groundwater recharge sciencedirect.
The artificial recharge techniques inter relate land integrate the source water to ground water reservoir. While estimating natural ground water recharge, it is essential to have a good idea of the different recharge mechanisms and their importance in the study area. Groundwater recharge volumes in the jequitiba river basin, mg, brazil, estimated by two methods. Choice of methods should also be guided by the objectives of the study, available data and the possibilities to get supplementary data. The techniques of estimation of recharge in arid and semiarid regions include geochemical methods, isotopic methods, physical measurements, waterbalance techniques, and temperature profiles, electromagnetic and. Like the recharge pits, recharge shafts are also used to recharge water to unconfined aquifer whose water table is deep below the land surface and a poorly impermeable strata exist at the surface level. Summary of groundwaterrecharge estimates for pennsylvania. Most approaches for quantifying groundwater recharge measure recharge directly or indirectly over a limited area point or smallbasin scale and for short periods of time.
Understanding groundwater recharge is essential for successful management of water resources and modeling fluid and contaminant transport within the subsurface. Bhattacharjee state water investigation directorate, west bengal. The artificial techniques use for groundwater recharge can be divided in two groups, i. Artificial groundwater recharge of the ogallala formation of late tertiary age is a watermanagement technique that may be of significant value on the southern high plains of texas and new mexico. Under specific conditions artificial recharge by use of either waterspreading basins or. Risser abstract groundwater recharge is water that infiltrates through the subsurface to the zone of saturation beneath the water table. When the water table is deep underground, the water of the aquifer may be exceedingly old, possibly a result of a past climatic regime. These methods produce estimates over various time and space scales and encompass a wide range of complexity and expense.
Estimation of recharge, by whatever method, are normally subject to large uncertainties and errors. Direct surface techniques are among the simplest and most widely used methods for groundwater recharge. One result of the growing competition for water is increased attention to the use of artificial recharge to augment ground water supplies. Modelling groundwater recharge juser forschungszentrum julich. Pdf comparison of groundwater recharge estimation methods. Groundwater recharge from agricultural areas in the. Many different approaches exist for estimating recharge. Estimating groundwater recharge is a key component in determining the sustainable yield of groundwater resources in arid and semiarid areas such as southern california. The watertable fluctuation method may be the most widely used technique for estimating recharge. Groundwater recharge is an important part of the water budget, and a variety of methods are. This site describes the application, data needs, strengths, and weaknesses of widelyused methods for estimating groundwater recharge that have general applicability in humid regions of the u. Groundwater resources program comparison of methods for. The use of groundwater for irrigation purposes has tremendously increased since the last.
They include most hydrologic models, such as surfacewater and groundwater. Gwrp regional groundwater availability studies geosptial data groundwater recharge data. Pdf approaches and methods of quantifying natural groundwater. A multitude of methods has been used to estimate recharge. Studies of recharge have been conducted throughout the state. Summary of groundwaterrecharge estimates for pennsylvania by stuart o. Management of aquifer recharge and discharge processes. Estimation of natural ground water recharge civildigital. Artificial groundwater recharge through roadside and open. Recharge of ground water is the latest in this series and has updated information on various aspects of investigation techniques for selection of sites, planning and design of artificial recharge structures, their economic evaluation, monitoring and technical auditing of schemes. Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems.
Summary of groundwater recharge estimates for pennsylvania by stuart o. Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a hydrologic process, where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater. Jan 12, 2002 accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. The patterns of groundwater flow from the recharge to the discharge areas form groundwater flow systems, which constitute the framework for understanding recharge processes. The state of groundwater governance in relation to the recharge and discharge processes and aquifer equilibrium states 1. Two effects are generated by artificial recharge in ground water reservoir namely a rise in water level and b increment in the total volume of the ground water reservoir.
This book is comprised of 26 chapters organized into five sections. Mau and winter 1997 have provided the instantaneous recharge method and the constant recharge method of hydrograph analysis to estimate recharge. The site is designed to be a quickreference or resource guide for selecting appropriate methods for estimating recharge in humid areas. The purpose of the study is to inform valuation of groundwater recharge from stormwater retention in. Nonpoint source control branch 4503t 1200 pennsylvania avenue, nw.
Groundwater flow net with recharge and discharge area. Groundwater and surface water is inter connected and they are not separate entities as is normally understood. Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge springerlink. A groundwater recharge perspective on locating tree. Improvements of methods of long term prediction of variations in groundwater resources and regimes due to human activity proceedings of the exeter symposium, july 1982. Nevertheless, some techniques become problematic because of measured conditions, and some are too expensive to be applied in field situations. Pdf methods of estimating groundwater recharge researchgate. Groundwater recharge in urban areas this runoff is often carried in storm sewers, drains, or other artificial waterways. Aug 31, 2016 like the recharge pits, recharge shafts are also used to recharge water to unconfined aquifer whose water table is deep below the land surface and a poorly impermeable strata exist at the surface level. Groundwater resources program comparison of methods. Estimating groundwater recharge on a regional scale requires developing a water budget that incorporates data on boundary conditions, aquifer properties, groundwater levels, and groundwater production. Stated simply, artificial recharge is a process by which excess surface water is directed into the groundeither by spreading on the surface, by using recharge wells, or by altering natural conditions to increase infiltrationto replenish an aquifer. Water management implications of groundwater recharge.1279 249 181 1185 568 152 926 1089 428 352 1246 693 1283 1111 152 1223 1427 389 65 1072 1045 1277 110 991 896 218 487 1272 658 1301 395 1118 865 1003 190 1091 435 368 1223 445 1466 16 562 456