The first sudanese civil war south african history online. My holistic treatment of the first civil war is intended to assist in a full understanding the root causes of the second civil war in the sudan, which lasted another twentytwo years from 1983 to 2005. South sudan hasnt known peace since it became an independent nation in 2011. This case study explores the background and bases for sudans two civil wars. This article addresses the social and political implications of wartime and postwar resource capture in south sudan. Although it originated in southern sudan, the civil war spread to the nuba mountains. This case study explores the background and bases for sudan s two civil wars 19551972 and 19832005, which pitted the powerful muslim arabs in the north against the christian and indigenous black africans of the south. Worse was to follow when the international community declared famine in 2017. The negotiations, which concluded with an agreement to end the conflict on may 9, followed. The sudanese civil war from 1956 to independence of south sudan. Since the end of the cold war there have been countless conflicts that have involved the deaths of millions of people and the suffering and displacement of millions more. The south sudanese civil war was a conflict in south sudan between forces of the government and opposition forces.
Attempts to end the civil war included numerous discussions, ceasefires, and agreements but yielded very little success until 2005, when the comprehensive peace agreement ended the warfare. It argues that predation by armed groups during the second civil war 19832005 initiated a process of dominant class formation, and demonstrates how, through various strategies of resource capture and kinship networks, commanders from the sudan peoples liberation. Other minor rebel groups include the shilluk, bari, zande, balanda etc. In 2017, south sudans civil war entered its fourth year, spreading across the country with new fighting in greater upper nile, western bahr al ghazal, and the equatorias, featuring highly. Numerous ceasefires, agreements, and peace discussions occurred during the 1990s but bore little fruit.
To prevent further catastrophe, the countrys leaders and its international partners need to consider a radical restructuring of the state. South sudan faces famine, potential genocide in civil war. At this particular moment, the main parties involved in the ongoing civil war are troops of president salva kiir representing the government and the opposing forces are of former vice president machar. Less than a year after the old greater sudan split into the northern republic of sudan and the new republic of south sudan or north and south sudan, for claritythe two countries were again in a state of war. Chinese intervention in the second sudanese civil war a case study of chinas role as a third party and its effects on the second civil war in sudan, 19892005 ane tosterud holte. Conflict and the role of the media 5 part one part one conflict, the modern world and the media conflict is one of the defining features of the modern world. The sudanese government forced him out in 1995 under pressure from the united states and saudi arabia. Finding peaceful resolution to the conflict in south sudan. The ugandan peoples defense forces, with tacit us support, rescued kiirs regime from an opposition attack on juba at the outset of the civil war in 20, and uganda remains the main transit point and facilitator for arms and ammunition to the regime. Southern parts of sudan, we thought that both, northern and southern, views and perspectives should be given equal space in this undertaking. Dec 20, 20 sudans civil war, which raged from the 1980s until a peace deal was brokered in the early 2000s, marks the longest war ever to take place on the african continent. The first conflict erupted when the sudanese government attempted to force arabic as the countrys official language and islam as the official religion.
Civil war has raged in southern sudan from 1955 to 1972 and again from 1983 to the present. Although it originated in southern sudan, the civil war spread to the nuba mountains and blue nile. This post is a brief history, intended to provide a contextual background for understanding the complex issues that the enough project works on. Chinese intervention in the second sudanese civil war.
Given the high complexity and the multifaceted dimensions of the sudanese conflict system, the writing process turned out to be. Second sudanese civil war project gutenberg selfpublishing. By april 2012 though, the fighting had escalated into war between north and south, with the souths army crossing into the north and the norths military bombing villages across the border. Pdf the new civil war in south sudan began in december 20. Machar denied trying to start a coup and fled to lead the splm in opposition splmio. Although it originated in southern sudan, the civil war spread to the nuba mountains and the blue nile. In1972,highleveldelegates from boththesudanesegovernment and the guerrilla forces met in addis ababa, ethiopia, and after a series of 5 kebbede. More than 115 aid workers have been killed in south sudan since the start of the civil war in 20.
The country of south sudan gained its independence from sudan in 2011, but two years later, this new nation of 11 million people became embroiled in civil war. South sudan from revolution to independence download. The au commission has the authority to establish the hybrid court without the engagement of the south sudanese government under the terms of the 2015 peace agreement, and the revitalized agreement. South sudanese public, which is understandably fatigued from years of. Since 2018, the eu has also contributed to actions in south sudan that strengthen ebola prevention and preparedness actions in the country.
A brief history of the civil war in south sudan comboni. A civil war by any other name crisis group africa report n217, 10 april 2014 page ii additional challenges. Aug 06, 2018 1978 oil discovered in unity state in southern sudan second civil war. A separate conflict that remained unresolved centred on the darfur region in western sudan. The council on foreign relations cfr is an independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think. In june 2005, the two authors agreed to take up the challenge. Years of international efforts to bring an end to decades of conflict by helping to negotiate the. South sudan marks 5 years of vicious civil war abc news. After years of conflict, a comprehensive peace agreement between the sudanese government and southern sudan is signed. Since civil war broke out in south sudan in december 20, over 50,000 people have been killedpossibly as many as 383,000, according to a recent estimateand nearly four. Dec 23, 2018 the second sudanese civil war was an intense 22year conflict between the central government in khartoum and the sudan peoples liberation army spla.
The second sudanese civil war lasted from 1985 through 2005, and was fought primarily between forces aligned with the northern, khartoumbased government against those aligned with the southernbased rebels, and within the southern rebel movement. The second sudanese civil war by sara ben abdallah on prezi. The principal conflict in sudanese society involves two major groups that are geographically, ethnically, and culturally more closely related to contiguous territories in neighboring countries than to each other. Sudanese was a surprising turn, because in the view of highstatus muslims who regarded themselves as arabs, being sudanese meant being black, as the arabic root of the term denoted, and being black, in turn, meant having low social status. It was largely a continuation of the first sudanese civil war of 1955 to 1972. The second sudanese civil war was an intense 22year conflict between the central government in khartoum and the sudan peoples liberation army spla. Most of post colonial history of sudan has been violence accurate accusation of genocide in two different region north vs south conflict darfur, save darfur campaigns west sudan. The second sudanese civil war the one salva lives through begins in 1983 when the sudanese peoples liberation movement splm, led by john garang, attacks the north for abolishing south sudans autonomy. Pdf the sudanese civil war from 1956 to independence of. Numeiri had begun to abrogate parts of the agreement, imposing sharia law across the country. Two million people died in this conflict but the war also led to the.
Media war and propaganda is not good to be use in the south sudan because we are one people with one objective that is peace and prosperity, propaganda is not good to be use at this particular. South sudan, for claritythe two countries were again in a state of war. It links the civil war in south sudan to systematic marginalization of the african populations of. This paper argues that it is simplistic to attribute the recent civil war in south sudan to the presence and exploration of crude oil in that country. I know the impact of war and i know the importance of peace. After nearly three years of civil war, south sudan has ceased to.
It lasted for 22 years and is one of the longest civil wars on record. This report examines how the political and security dynamics surrounding south sudans civil war underscore the shifting political and security fault lines in the horn of africa, their impact on us interests, and their consequences for us efforts to address armed conflict in the broader red sea region. The roots of the current situations date back to 1983, when civil war resumed in sudan, led a southern militia, the sudanese peoples liberation army spla, the military arm of the sudanese peoples liberation. South sudan european civil protection and humanitarian. South sudan sank into civil war last december, less than three years after gaining independence. The reprioritisation of its mandated tasks has essentially divided the country in two for the beleaguered unmiss. It soon proved to be a disaster for the population, a threat to the integrity of the. It lasted for 22 years and is one of the longest civil. Aug 07, 2015 the second sudanese civil war lasted from 1985 through 2005, and was fought primarily between forces aligned with the northern, khartoumbased government against those aligned with the southernbased rebels, and within the southern rebel movement. The south sudanese civil war was a conflict in south s udan between forces of the government and opposition forces. Although americans see little of south sudan on the nightly news, for nearly five years south sudanese civilians have been subjected to mass killing, widespread sexual violence, torture, and other atrocities.
In december 20, president kiir accused his former deputy riek machar and ten others of attempting a coup detat. In early 2003, just as negotiations to end the civil war were progressing, a new rebellion spawned in the western province of darfur when ethnically african rebel groups, including the sudanese. Prior to independence, the unified sudan had fought two civil wars. The war started in southern sudan but spread to other places including. The most recent sudanese civil war 19832005 was directly related to the first. Sudans civil war and mitigating the regions other interstate hostilities and intrastate conflicts will require the. Conflict profile, causes, actors and dynamics tethloach ruey doctoral thesis dissertation politics international politics topic. Sudan s civil war, which raged from the 1980s until a peace deal was brokered in the early 2000s, marks the longest war ever to take.
The bold recommendations made in ending south sudans civil war. The sudans civil war, also the first in postcolonial africa, began, with the torit mutiny, a few months before independence was attained on 1 january 1956. International attention focused on sudan in the 1990s not just be cause of its appalling civil war but also because osama bin laden, leader of the global terrorist network alqaeda, was a prominent resident. Peace and conflict studies, security publish your bachelors or masters thesis, dissertation, term paper or essay. Both the timing and the terms of the sudan s independence were less a product of nationalist mobilization than of. Conflict in south sudan and the challenges ahead congressional research service summary south sudan, which separated from sudan in 2011 after almost 40 years of civil war, was drawn into a devastating new conflict in late 20, when a political dispute that overlapped with preexisting ethnic and political fault lines turned violent. The civil war started n 1955 that civil war lasted until the 2000s.
The government of sudan and rebels, prodded by western powers led by the united states, eventually signed an agreement in january 2005, known as the comprehensive peace agreement cpa, ending the country. A mere two years after achieving independence, south sudan in 20 descended into violent civil war, refuting us government claims that the countrys succession was a major foreign policy success and would end endemic conflict. Ending south sudans civil war council on foreign relations. This situation has been compounded by regional conflicts in other parts of sudan. The military dynamics of south sudan s ivil war jubabased observer july 2014 introduction after seven months of war and several failed attempts at peace, south sudan s civil war shows few signs of letting up. The civilian population is starving, and theft and plunder are the order of the day, legitimizing illegality. Second sudanese civil war 19832005, one of the longest civil wars on record, officially ended in. It also granted southern sudan semiautonomous status and stipulated that a referendum on independence for the south would be held in six years. Independence through civil wars, 19562005 posted by mollie zapata on december, 2011 editors note. The sudan was the first african territory administered by britain to be granted independence after world war two.
Institute of peace, june 2011, filesresourcessr278. The civil war in south sudan has resulted in some of the most severe, deliberate violence against civilians since the rwandan genocide. Two civil wars and the formation of one of the worlds newest countries still hasnt prevented more fighting. Conflict resumes due to northern attempts to impose islamic law, tensiosn over oil, continued southern underdevelopment, and other causes second civil war ends when the government of sudan and the splma sign the 2005 comprehensive peace agreement. Ending the war was also advantageous for this would strengthen his political powerbase. Conflict profile, causes, actors and dynamics abstract this thesis analyses causes of the current south sudanese civil war that broke out on 15 december 20. The causes of sudans recent economic decline haitham abdualaziz almosharaf 1, fung deng tian 2 school of economics and management lanzhou jiaotong university, china abstract.
The conflict began in 2003 when rebels launched an insurrection to protest what they contended was the sudanese governments disregard for the western region and its nonarab population. Take a look at the timeline below for a peek into the countrys history, from its violent split from sudan through to today. Learn about the civil war in south sudan, sanctions imposed by the united states and europe, and other recent developments on cfrs global conflict tracker. South sudan marks 5 years of vicious civil war more than 4 million people have been uprooted by the bloodletting, the majority of whom are children, according to unicef. Project muse ethiopias involvement in the sudanese civil. War is a dirty business the testimonies of refugees from the former south sudanese state of central equatoria speak of attacked and looted villages, raped women, and young children forcibly enlisted in rebel troops. A long walk to water the sudanese civil wars gradesaver. Pdf a year of south sudans third civil war researchgate.
With the end of the cold war and the fading of the bipolar world system, military support on behalf of the two cold war superpowers ended. Prior to the six day war in 1967, the united kingdom supported the sudanese government. Included in this study is also a government offensive against the nuba mountains, which is part of. Following this war, sudan was distanced from the west while soviets moved in to support the government cooper, 2003. The second sudanese civil war was a conflict from 1983 to 2005 between the central sudanese government and the sudan peoples liberation army. South sudans history at a glance concern worldwide. South sudans civil war and conflict dynamics in the red sea. Pdf civil wars in greater sudan and south sudan civil. Kate almquist knopf ending south sudan s civil war. Through its development aid, the eu also helps to strengthen the national health system. South sudan european civil protection and humanitarian aid. While the war was largely categorized as a northsouth conflict. Fighting broke out between the sudan peoples liberation movement splm.
Examining the status of the south sudan civil war and discussing the evolving. In the 1990s, the nature of the sudanese conflict changed. The cold war played an important role in the sudanese civil wars, particularly in the first war 19561978. The most recent sudanese civil war 19832005 was directly related to the first sudanese civil war 19561972, which began in the first year of independence and lasted nearly sixteen years. Most of economists use the background of the civil war in sudan to analyze the sudanese economic decline in the last three decades. The war started in southern sudan but spread to other places including the nuba mountains and the blue nile region. Finding peaceful resolution to the conflict in south sudan 2 completely. Sudan is a state in central africa, straddling the cultural and geographic divide of north and subsaharan africa, directly south of egypt and bordering eight other countries. Chinese intervention in the second sudanese civil war a case study of chinas role as a third party and its effects on the second civil war in sudan, 19892005 ane tosterud holte masters thesis in peace and conflict studies department of. The second sudanese civil war by, sara ben abdallah end of the war who was affected south sudan s flag south sudanese refugee camp south sudanese boys walking how it started sources south sudanese rebels. In south sudan there are a total of 64 different ethnic groups. Conflict analysis and options for systemic conflict.990 1361 49 608 936 1081 627 800 1140 1078 518 831 1053 1327 1081 39 316 1173 1061 1359 361 1259 1060 925 1257 620 945 996 316 1162 1370 137 1414 370 4 744 1045 753 385